Άρθρα για την αποστασία

Στη σελίδα αυτή καταχωρούμε άρθρα για την αποστασία, τα οποία έχουν δημοσιευθεί σε ισλαμικούς ιστότοπους.

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Islam Q&A http://islamqa.com/en/ref/811/apostasy

Η ΜΕΤΑΦΡΑΣΗ ΣΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ

Fatwa αρ. 811
Γιατί ο θάνατος είναι η ποινή για την αποστασία

Alslamualik :
«Το ζήτημα έχει πολλές φορές τεθεί από τους μη μουσουλμάνους και θέλω να βρω μια απάντηση: Γιατί όταν ο μουσουλμάνος/μουσουλμάνα μεταστρέφεται σε άλλη θρησκεία (Murtad) τότε θα πρέπει να θανατωθεί;»

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Δοξασμένος να είναι ο Αλλάχ.

Η ερώτησή σας μπορεί να απαντηθεί από τα εξής σημεία:

(1) Αυτή είναι η απόφαση του Αλλάχ και του Αποστόλου Του, καθώς ο Προφήτης (η ειρήνη και η ευλογία του Αλλάχ να είναι μαζί του) είπε: “Όποιος αλλάζει τη θρησκεία του, σκοτώστε τον.” (αναφέρθηκε στο al-Bukhaari, al-Fath, NO. 3017).

(2) Αυτός που γνώρισε τη θρησκεία που ο Αλλάχ αποκάλυψε, την ασπάστηκε και την εξάσκησε, και μετά την απέρριψε, την περιφρόνησε και την άφησε, είναι ένα άτομο που δεν αξίζει να ζει στη γη του Αλλάχ και τρώει από τα τρόφιμα του Αλλάχ.

(3) Αφήνοντας το Ισλάμ, ο αποστάτης ανοίγει το δρόμο για όλους όσους επιθυμούν να εγκαταλείψουν την πίστη, εξαπλώνοντας έτσι την αποστασία και ενθαρρύνοντάς την.

(4) Ο αποστάτης δεν πρέπει να θανατώνεται χωρίς προειδοποίηση. Παρότι το έγκλημά του είναι τόσο μεγάλο, του δίνεται μια τελευταία ευκαιρία, μια προθεσμία τριών ημερών για να μετανοήσει. Αν ανανήψει, θα τον αφήσουν ήσυχο. Εάν δεν μετανιώσει, τότε θα θανατωθεί.

(5) Αν η τιμωρία για φόνο και κατασκοπεία (επίσης γνωστή ως εσχάτη προδοσία) είναι ο θάνατος, τότε ποια θα πρέπει να είναι η ποινή για εκείνον που απιστεί στον Κύριο της ανθρωπότητας και περιφρονεί και απορρίπτει της θρησκεία του; Είναι η κατασκοπεία και το χύσιμο αίματος χειρότερο από το αφήνουμε τη θρησκεία του Κυρίου της ανθρωπότητας και να την απορρίπτουμε;

(6) Κανείς από εκείνους που κλαψουρίζουν σχετικά με την προσωπική ελευθερία και την ελευθερία της πίστης δεν θα ανεχόταν έναπαιδί του γείτονά τους να χτυπά το παιδί τους και δεν θα το νομιμοποιούσε αυτό ως “προσωπική ελευθερία», έτσι, με ποιον τρόπο μπορούν να δικαιολογήσουν την εγκατάλειψη της πραγματικής θρησκείας και την απόρριψη της Σαρία που ο Αλλάχ αποκάλυψε για να διδάξει την ανθρωπότητα για την ενότητά του και να φέρει δικαιοσύνη και δίκαιη μεταχείριση σε όλους;

Ζητούμε από τον Aλλάχ ασφάλεια και υγεία. Μακάρι ο Αλλάχ να ευλογεί τον Προφήτη μας Μωάμεθ.

Ισλάμ Q & A (Ερωτήσεις και απαντήσεις)
Σείχης Muhammed Al-Salih Munajjid

ΤΟ ΠΡΩΤΟΤΥΠΟ ΚΕΙΜΕΝΟ ΣΤΑ ΑΓΓΛΙΚΑ

Why death is the punishment for Apostasy

AlslamualikThis question has bees asked several time from non-Muslims and I want to find an answer: Why When the Muslim convert to another religion(Murtad) he/she should be killed?

Praise be to Allaah.

Your question may be answered by the following points:

(1) This is the ruling of Allaah and His Messenger, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: «Whoever changes his religion, kill him.» (reported by al-Bukhaari, al-Fath, no. 3017).

(2) The one who has known the religion which Allaah revealed, entered it and practised it, then rejected it, despised it and left it, is a person who does not deserve to live on the earth of Allaah and eat from the provision of Allaah.

(3) By leaving Islaam, the apostate opens the way for everyone who wants to leave the faith, thus spreading apostasy and encouraging it.

(4) The apostate is not to be killed without warning. Even though his crime is so great, he is given a last chance, a respite of three days in which to repent. If he repents, he will be left alone; if he does not repent, then he will be killed.

(5) If the punishment for murder and espionage (also known as high treason) is death, then what should be the punishment for the one who disbelieves in the Lord of mankind and despises and rejects His religion? Is espionage or shedding blood worse than leaving the religion of the Lord of mankind and rejecting it?

(6) None of those who bleat about personal freedom and freedom of belief would put up with a neighbour’s child hitting their child or justify this as «personal freedom,» so how can they justify leaving the true religion and rejecting the sharee’ah which Allaah revealed to teach mankind about His unity and bring justice and fairness to all?

We ask Allaah for safety and health. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad .

Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
2

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http://www.sunnah.org/msaec/articles/apostasy.htm

On apostasy

Salam alaykum:

There has been differences of opinion on the English lexical meaning of «apostasy» and «apostate» as well as the Arabic equivalents. I will use the English words on the bases given by their definitions in Webster’s, together with the Arabic lexical and legal definitions for the words «murtadd» and «ridda.»

From Webster’s New World Dictionary & Thesaurus:

apostate: a-pos-tate n. [ME apostate, apostata < OFr apostate & ML apostata < LL(Ec) apostata < Gr(Ec) apostates < Gr, deserter, rebel] a person guilty of apostasy; renegade adj. guilty of apostasy n. — Syn. renegade, one of little faith, backslider, defector; see deserter, traitor. See heretic, heretical, impious, rebel, recreant, scab, skeptic, turncoat

apostasy: a-pos-ta-sy n., pl. -sies [ME apostasie < LL(Ec) apostasia < Gr apo-, away + stasis, a standing: see STASIS] an abandoning of what one has believed in, as a faith, cause, or principles See defection, desertion, disloyalty, heresy

Are the semantic equivalents of apostate and apostasy also found in the Arabic words murtadd and irtidad which respectively correspond to them?

The words apostate and apostasy can be equally translated into Arabic respectively as kafir or murtadd, and as kufr or irtidad.

The Arabic word murtadd applies to a Muslim who publicly declares kufr or unbelief — we seek refuge in Allah — by so stating or by denying a fundamental tenet of creed — such as Allah’s angels — or definitely abandoning or denying a fundamental obligation in the Religion such as prayer (salat), or acting in a way unmistakably tantamount to unbelief such as prostrating to an idol.

The Law considers irtidad not an exercise of personal freedom — as the West construes atheism and «agnosticism» in its own societies — but a crime and declaration of war against Muslim society, which is duty-bound to protect itself from its consequences. This is a condition of irtidad as established by the Prophet’s statement — Allah bless and greet him:

«The blood of a Muslim is illicit to shed except for one of three reasons: a married adulterer must be stoned; one who wilfully commits murder must be put to death; and a man who comes out of Islam and fights Allah and His Prophet must be put to death or crucified or banished from the earth.»

It is narrated with transmission chains of trustworthy narrators from `A’isha by al-Nasa’i and Abu Dawud in their Sunan and al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra. This hadith explicitly makes «fighting Allah and His Prophet,» i.e. fighting Islam and Muslims, a condition sine qua non for punishability by death. For then the murtadd becomes the same as an enemy soldier in wartime (muharab), i.e. an enemy of Islam on the battlefield.

The Arabic words irtidad and ridda apply to the occurrence of the above situation. In addition, ridda has been used in the term «war of the Ridda» by the historians to denote the war in early Islam against the Arab tribes who withheld the remittance of the alms-tax to the State and whom the State fought but without declaring them disbelievers.

The public dimension is essential for irtidad to take place. When one succeeds in keeping the matter to oneself, as in the spiritually disintegrated mass of Western societies, then irtidad has not been verified and one is not considered a murtadd although he has become an unbeliever — may Allah protect us. As for one who professes and observes Islam but harbors unbelief without publicly declaring it is not a murtadd but a munafiq or dissimulator.

The munafiq is not a kafir in the eyes of the Law and must be treated as a Muslim up to and including burial rites and inheritance status, while the murtadd is a kafir in the eyes of the Law and is subject to the penal law (hadd) that applies to the murtadd as enforced only by the Islamic state.

It is forbidden for individuals to enforce any penal law or act of war whatsoever whether in the presence or in the absence of an Islamic state except by lawful mandate, but the latter can be de facto, as in the case of a people’s legitimate defense against aggression.

One who professes Islam without observing its obligations and prohibitions nor harboring unbelief is neither a murtadd nor a munafiq nor a kafir but a fasiq or depraved person — may Allah guide us and you.

Irtidad is an open rending from within of the fabric of Muslim society which is responsible for repairing it immediately, just as it must repair and counter the harm of depravity. As defined by the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — irtidad is a declaration of war against Muslim society from inside it. This is confirmed by the fact that irtidad is a public act bearing on all of one’s social and private contracts, not a private exploration conducted in a philosophical vacuum. And Allah knows best.

GF Haddad Qasyoun@cyberia.net.lb

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Narrated Ikrima: Ali burnt some people and this news reached Ibn ‘Abbas, who said, «Had I been in his place I would not have burnt them, as the Prophet said, ‘Don’t punish (anybody) with Allah’s Punishment.’ No doubt, I would have killed them, for the Prophet said, ‘If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him.’ »
Sahih Bukhari 4:52:260

Narrated ‘Abdullah:

Allah’s Apostle said, «The blood of a Muslim who confesses that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that I am His Apostle, cannot be shed except in three cases: In Qisas for murder, a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse and the one who reverts from Islam (apostate) and leaves the Muslims.»
Sahih Bukhari 9:83:17

Narrated ‘Ali:

Whenever I tell you a narration from Allah’s Apostle, by Allah, I would rather fall down from the sky than ascribe a false statement to him, but if I tell you something between me and you (not a Hadith) then it was indeed a trick (i.e., I may say things just to cheat my enemy). No doubt I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, «During the last days there will appear some young foolish people who will say the best words but their faith will not go beyond their throats (i.e. they will have no faith) and will go out from (leave) their religion as an arrow goes out of the game. So, where-ever you find them, kill them, for who-ever kills them shall have reward on the Day of Resurrection.»
Sahih Bukhari 9:84:64

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4

http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Sate … TheScholar

Last Update: 02:08 GMT, Wednesday, Dec. 16, 2009
Living Shari`ah > Ask The Scholar

Question and Answer Details
Name of Questioner Saleem
Title Source of the Punishment for Apostasy
Question Dear Sheikh! I find it strange that you speak about the punishment specified for apostasy. I cannot find any verse stating such a punishment for an apostate. Moreover, it goes against the idea that Islam cannot be spread by the sword. Can you enlighten me on the sources of this punishment? Is it from the Hadith of the Prophet Hadiths?
Date 26/Jul/2003
Name of Mufti Group of Muftis
Topic Apostasy
Answer
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.
Dear questioner, May Allah grant you guidance and illumination for bearing with us and sending us this good question. Thank you very much for the confidence in our service and we hope you receive our answer objectively.

Coming to your question on the basis of the punishment of apostasy, we would like to start with the following words of the prominent Moroccan scholar Sheikh Abdul Bari Az-Zamzamy:

«It should be noted that Islam never compels any person to accept it or embrace its teachings. It gives the freedom of thinking to people, with full respect to their mentalities and way of thinking. However, Islam is not a man-made religion that is subject to scrutiny or biased criticism that is based on mere suspicion, since it was originated by Allah, the Supreme Creator of all minds and mentalities. In addition, apostasy causes a total disruption and confusion in the Muslim community, and thus, a severe punishment was set for it to deter anyone from thinking of it. It was originally put into force following the Jewish conspiracy against Islam. The details of that conspiracy were simply mass conversion to Islam and then mass apostasy. The main ill aim was to cause confusion and to lead people astray. Thus, the punishment was set as a precautionary measure to stop all these offenses.»

Speaking of the authority of the punishment and its being genuine and based on the authentic sources of Islam, Sheikh `Attiyah Saqr, former Head of Al-Azhar Fatwa Committee, states:

«It is not right to deny the punishment of apostasy claiming that it has not been reported in the Qur’an, because it has been recorded in the mutawatir (Hadith which has been reported by at least four of the Companions in different times and places in a way that make a person sure that such Hadith is not fabricated) and the non-mutawatir Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). Hudud (Islamic punishment specified for certain crimes) may, of course, be based on the non-mutawatir Sunnah.»

Detailing the issue and showing some of the evidence for the punishment of apostasy, the prominent Muslim scholar Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, states:

«All Muslim jurists agree that the apostate is to be punished. However, they differ regarding the punishment itself. The majority of them go for killing; meaning that an apostate is to be sentenced to death.

Many authentic Hadiths have been reported in this regard. Ibn `Abbas reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, «Whoever changes his religion, you kill him.» (Reported by all the group except Muslim, and at-Tabarani also reported it with a sound chain of narrators. Also recorded in Majma` Az-Zawa’id by Al-Haythamiy.)

There is also the Hadith of Ibn Mas`ud that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, «The blood of a Muslim individual who bears witness that there is no god but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah, is not to be shed except in three cases: in retaliation (in murder crimes), married adulterers (and adulteresses), and the one who abandons his religion and forsakes the Muslim community.» (Reported by the Group)

The actual example of one of the greatest Companions, `Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) gives credit to this also. He himself carried out the punishment on some people who had deified him. He gave them three days respite to repent and go back to their senses. When they proved adamant, he put them to fire.”

Allah Almighty knows best.

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5

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Index » JINAYAT (CRIMINOLOGY) AND ISLAMIC JUDICIAL SYSTEM » Hudud (pl. of Hadd i.e., Punishment Determined by Shari\’ah for Crimes) » Hadd of apostasy (5)
Fatwa No. : 90878
Fatwa Title : Death as a punishment for apostasy
Fatwa Date : 17 Thul-Qi’dah 1426 / 18-12-2005
Question

My question is why is apostasy punishable by death in Islam?

Are apostate woman and children also liable to be killed without impunity? Kindly answer this question of mine.

Fatwa
All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.

The corporal punishment that should be implemented on an apostate is death as the Prophet said: «Whoever changes his religion, kill him However, it is only the Muslim ruler who may inflict this punishment of killing an apostate, and it is not any person who may do this as this will lead to affliction and anarchy. The corporal punishment of a person who apostates, is death because Allaah legislated so, and we cannot object His Decree. Allaah Says (which means): {It is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when Allaah and His Messenger have decided a matter, that they should [thereafter] have any choice about their affair. And whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger has certainly strayed into clear error.}[Quran 33:36]. Moreover, this apostate knew the greatness of Islam and that it is the true religion, but then he rejected it and abandoned it just because of following his desires and following the devil, so he deserves to be killed.

An apostate who should be killed is an adult, sane person who chooses to do so, whether it is a man or a woman; there is a consensus of the scholars with regard to a male apostate, but in relation to a female apostate, it is the view of the majority or the jurists.

As regards a young child who apostates, it is not permissible to kill him until he becomes an adult. If he persists on disbelief as an adult, then he should be killed, but if he embraces Islam again, then he should not be killed. For more details, please refer to Fatwa 85488.

Allaah Knows best.

Fatwa answered by: The Fatwa Center at Islamweb

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Index » HOLY QUR’AN » Tafseer (Science of Explaining the Meanings of the Qur’an) » Tafseer of some verses of the Qur’an (84)
Fatwa No. : 92252
Fatwa Title : Explanation of Quran [4:137]
Fatwa Date : 01 Rajab 1427 / 27-07-2006
Question
Contradiction with Hadeeth of Bukhari about apestete .. is it? please reply me quickly 4:137 in Sura al-Nisa states, Those who believe, then reject faith, then believe (again) and (again) reject faith, and go on increasingly in unbelief, Allah will not forgive them nor guide them on the way. The verse doesn’t call for the apostate’s death. It simply says, Allah will not forgive him. This verse also shows that going back and forth between Islam and some other religion(s) did indeed happen (otherwise why mention it?). If the punishment of apostasy were indeed death, how could an apostate go back and forth in belief and disbelief? He would be killed at his first deed of apostasy and wouldn’t have opportunity to come and go. And for me its very clear and written in Black and White when i read this. [2:256] There shall be no compulsion in religion: the right way is now distinct from the wrong way. Anyone who denounces the devil and believes in GOD has grasped the strongest bond; one that never breaks. GOD is Hearer, Omniscient.
Fatwa
All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.

We have already given a comprehensive response to this misconception in Fataawa 89484, 89471 and 85488 and quoted the interpretations of the scholars of verse 2:256, so please refer to them.

As regards the verse in which Allaah Says (what means): {Indeed, those who have believed then disbelieved, then believed then disbelieved, and then increased in disbelief — never will Allaah forgive them, or will He guide them to a way.}[Quran 4:137], there is no relevance between the meaning which you understand from this verse and the correct meaning stated by the Muslim scholars. The meaning of the verse is that Allaah will never forgive the people who persisted in disbelief and that He will not guide them to the straight path.

As a matter of fact, Ash-Shawkaani said: ‘Allaah informs us about this group who have believed, and then disbelieved, and then believed, and then disbelieved, and then increased in disbelief, that Allaah will never forgive them, neither will He guide them to a way which will enable them to find the truth or do good, as it is most unlikely that they will be sincere to Allaah and truly believe. This is because of their wavering, sometimes they claim to believe, and sometimes they apostate from Islam, and return to their disbelief and constant denial. Clearly, this is an evidence that they are playing with the religion, and have no correct or sincere intention…’

Some scholars interpreted the verse to mean that once a disbeliever embraces Islam his prior disbelief is forgiven for him, but if he apostates and disbelieves again, then, in this case, none of his prior disbelief will be forgiven. Al-Qurtubi said in his Tafseer (interpretation of the meaning of the Quran): ‘It is said that Allaah does not forgive any disbelief, so how come Allaah Says (what means): {Indeed, those who have believed then disbelieved, then believed then disbelieved, and then increased in disbelief — never will Allaah forgive them.}, the answer for this is that when a disbeliever embraces Islam, his disbelief is forgiven, but if he disbelieves again and apostates, then, in this case, none of his prior disbelief will be forgiven. ‘Abdullaah narrated that the Prophet was asked: »Will we be held accountable for the evil we did in the Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era of ignorance)? He replied: »Whoever amongst you excel in Islam [i.e. be true to his commitment to Islam] he will not be held accountable for it, but whoever does evil after becoming a Muslim, he will be held accountable for both, the time of Jaahiliyyah and the time when he became a Muslim.»; another narration reads: »…and whoever does evil in Islam, he will be held accountable for the first [Jaahiliyyah] and the last [Islam].» To do evil here means to apostate.

Therefore, it is now clear that this verse has nothing to do with what you mentioned in your question.

With regard to killing an apostate, this is something which is confirmed by many other evidences.

Allaah Knows best.

Fatwa answered by: The Fatwa Center at Islamweb

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7

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Question and Answer Details
Name of Questioner Saleem
Title Source of the Punishment for Apostasy
Question Dear Sheikh! I find it strange that you speak about the punishment specified for apostasy. I cannot find any verse stating such a punishment for an apostate. Moreover, it goes against the idea that Islam cannot be spread by the sword. Can you enlighten me on the sources of this punishment? Is it from the Hadith of the Prophet Hadiths?
Date 26/Jul/2003
Name of Mufti Group of Muftis
Topic Apostasy
Answer
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.
Dear questioner, May Allah grant you guidance and illumination for bearing with us and sending us this good question. Thank you very much for the confidence in our service and we hope you receive our answer objectively.

Coming to your question on the basis of the punishment of apostasy, we would like to start with the following words of the prominent Moroccan scholar Sheikh Abdul Bari Az-Zamzamy:

«It should be noted that Islam never compels any person to accept it or embrace its teachings. It gives the freedom of thinking to people, with full respect to their mentalities and way of thinking. However, Islam is not a man-made religion that is subject to scrutiny or biased criticism that is based on mere suspicion, since it was originated by Allah, the Supreme Creator of all minds and mentalities. In addition, apostasy causes a total disruption and confusion in the Muslim community, and thus, a severe punishment was set for it to deter anyone from thinking of it. It was originally put into force following the Jewish conspiracy against Islam. The details of that conspiracy were simply mass conversion to Islam and then mass apostasy. The main ill aim was to cause confusion and to lead people astray. Thus, the punishment was set as a precautionary measure to stop all these offenses.»

Speaking of the authority of the punishment and its being genuine and based on the authentic sources of Islam, Sheikh `Attiyah Saqr, former Head of Al-Azhar Fatwa Committee, states:

«It is not right to deny the punishment of apostasy claiming that it has not been reported in the Qur’an, because it has been recorded in the mutawatir (Hadith which has been reported by at least four of the Companions in different times and places in a way that make a person sure that such Hadith is not fabricated) and the non-mutawatir Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). Hudud (Islamic punishment specified for certain crimes) may, of course, be based on the non-mutawatir Sunnah.»

Detailing the issue and showing some of the evidence for the punishment of apostasy, the prominent Muslim scholar Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, states:

«All Muslim jurists agree that the apostate is to be punished. However, they differ regarding the punishment itself. The majority of them go for killing; meaning that an apostate is to be sentenced to death.

Many authentic Hadiths have been reported in this regard. Ibn `Abbas reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, «Whoever changes his religion, you kill him.» (Reported by all the group except Muslim, and at-Tabarani also reported it with a sound chain of narrators. Also recorded in Majma` Az-Zawa’id by Al-Haythamiy.)

There is also the Hadith of Ibn Mas`ud that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, «The blood of a Muslim individual who bears witness that there is no god but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah, is not to be shed except in three cases: in retaliation (in murder crimes), married adulterers (and adulteresses), and the one who abandons his religion and forsakes the Muslim community.» (Reported by the Group)

The actual example of one of the greatest Companions, `Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) gives credit to this also. He himself carried out the punishment on some people who had deified him. He gave them three days respite to repent and go back to their senses. When they proved adamant, he put them to fire.”

Allah Almighty knows best.

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8

http://www.islam-qa.com/en/ref/12406

Why should a person who disbelieves after becoming Muslim be executed? The punishment for the apostate is execution. Why such harshness?.

Praise be to Allaah.

The punishment for apostasy from the religion of Islam is execution. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever”

[al-Baqarah 2:217]

And it was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever changes his religion, execute him.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh. What this hadeeth means is that whoever leaves Islam and changes to another religion and persists in that and does not repent, is to be executed. It was also proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “It is not permissible to shed the blood of a person who bears witness that there is no god but Allaah and that I am the Messenger of Allaah except in three cases: a life for a life, a previously-married person who commits adultery, and one who leaves Islam and forsakes the jamaa’ah.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim.

This harsh punishment is for a number of reasons:

1 – This punishment is a deterrent to anyone who wants to enter Islam just to follow the crowd or for hypocritical purposes. This will motivate him to examine the matter thoroughly and not to proceed unless he understands the consequences of that in this world and in the Hereafter. The one who announces his Islam has agreed to adhere to all the rulings of Islam of his own free will and consent, one of which rulings is that he is to be executed if he apostatizes from the faith.

2 – The one who announces his Islam has joined the jamaa’ah (main body) of the Muslims, and whoever joins the main body of the Muslims is required to be completely loyal and to support it and protect it against anything that may lead to fitnah or destroy it or cause division. Apostasy from Islam means forsaking the jamaa’ah and its divine order, and has a harmful effect on it. Execution is the greatest deterrent that will prevent people from committing such a crime.

3 – Those Muslims who are weak in faith and others who are against Islam may think that the apostate has only left Islam because of what he has found out about its real nature, because if it were the truth then he would never have turned away from it. So they learn from him all the doubts, lies and fabrications which are aimed at extinguishing the light of Islam and putting people off from it. In this case executing the apostate is obligatory, in order to protect the true religion from the defamation of the liars and to protect the faith of its adherents and remove obstacles from the path of those who are entering the faith.

4 – We also say that the death penalty exists in the modern laws of man to protect the system from disorder in some situation and to protect society against certain crimes which may cause its disintegration, such as drugs etc. If execution can serve as a deterrent to protect man-made systems, then it is more appropriate that the true religion of Allaah, which Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it [cf. Fussilat 41:42], and which is all goodness, happiness and tranquility in this world and in the Hereafter should punish those who commit acts of aggression against it and seek to extinguish its light and defame its image, and who fabricate lies against it to justify their apostasy and deviation.

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 21/234-231.

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http://www.salafimanhaj.com/pdf/SalafiM … ostasy.pdf

Θέτουμε υπόψη σας ότι η σύγχρονη salafiya δέχεται κατηγορίες (βλ. http://www.ummah.net/Al_adaab/spy1-7.html) Πάντως το κείμενο αυτό συμφωνεί με τις βασικές απόψεις του Ισλάμ. Μπορείτε να βρείτε το pdf αυτό και στο ιστολόγιό μας. SalafiManhaj_Apostasy

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Το λήμμα της αγγλικής Βικιπαίδεια (έκδοση http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apostasy_in_Islam&oldid=330242999).

Apostasy in Islam

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda‎) is commonly defined as the rejection in word or deed of their former religion (apostasy) by a person who was previously a follower of Islam.

The four major Sunni Madh’hab (schools of Islamic jurisprudence) all agree that apostasy is a sin as long as the individual does not do so in ignorance or under duress.[1][2] They also differentiate between harmful apostasy and harmless apostasy[3] (also known as major and minor apostasy).[1] According to Wael Hallaq nothing of the apostasy law are derived from the Qur’an,[4]

Some Islamic jurists, such as Hanafi jurist Sarakhsi,[5] Maliki jurist Abu al-Walid al-Baji, and Hanbali jurist Ibn Taymiyyah,[6] and some contemporary Islamic jurists, such as Shafi`i Grand Mufti Ali Gomaa[7][8] and Shi’a Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri,[9] argued or issued fatwas that either the changing of religion is not punishable or is only punishable under restricted circumstances.[10][11][12][13] Some groups within Islam such as the Shi’a Ismaili reject death for apostasy altogether.[citation needed]

Some prominent contemporary examples of death sentences threatened or issued for apostasy include Abdul Rahman, an Afghan convert to Christianity who was arrested and jailed on the charge of rejecting Islam in 2006 but later released as mentally incompetent.[14]

Contents

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Qur’anic reference

The Qur’an states that God (in Arabic, Allah) despises apostasy. See verses [Qur’an 3:72], [Qur’an 3:90],[Qur’an 16:106],[Qur’an 4:137] and [Qur’an 5:54] which deal with apostasy directly and which state that Allah will punish and reject apostates in the afterlife. Except 16:106-109, the verses that discuss apostasy all appear in surahs identified as Madinan and belong to the period when the Islamic state had been established.

W. Heffening states that in Qur’an «the apostate is threatened with punishment in the next world only,» adding that Shafi’is interpret verse [Qur’an 2:217] as adducing the main evidence for the death penalty in the Qur’an. Wael Hallaq holds that «nothing in the law governing apostate and apostasy derives from the letter of the holy text.»[4]

The dissenting Shia jurist Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri, a significant Shi’a religious authority, states that the above verses do not prescribe an earthly penalty for apostasy.[9]

Sunni Hadith references

Heffening holds that contrary to the Qur’an, «in traditions, there is little echo of these punishments in the next world… and instead, we have in many traditions a new element, the death penalty.»[15] Examples of such passages include 9:83:17, 4:52:260, 9:84:57, 9:84:58, 9:89:271, etc.

Wael Hallaq states the death penalty was a new element added later and «reflects a later reality and does not stand in accord with the deeds of the Prophet.»[4] Montazeri believes that it is probable that the punishment was prescribed by Muhammad during early Islam – due to political conspiracies against Islam and Muslims, and not only because of changing the belief or expressing it. Montazeri defines different types of apostasy. He does not hold that a reversion of belief because of investigation and research is punishable by death, but prescribes capital punishment for a desertion of Islam out of malice and enmity towards the Muslim community.[9]

According to Tafsir

More recently, Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, a noted 20th century Islamic Scholar argued that verses [Qur’an 9:11] of the Qur’an sanction death for apostasy. The argument given by Mawdudi[16] for these verses is:

«The following is the occasion for the revelation of this verse: During the pilgrimage (hajj) in A.H. 9 God Most High ordered a proclamation of an immunity. By virtue of this proclamation all those who, up to that time, were fighting against God and His Apostle and were attempting to obstruct the way of God’s religion through all kinds of excesses and false covenants, were granted from that time a maximum respite of four months. During this period they were to ponder their own situation. If they wanted to accept Islam, they could accept it and they would be forgiven. If they wanted to leave the country, they could leave. Within this fixed period nothing would hinder them from leaving. Thereafter those remaining, who would neither accept Islam nor leave the country, would be dealt with by the sword.» In this connection it was said: «If they repent and uphold the practice of prayer and almsgiving, then they are your brothers in religion. If after this, however, they break their covenant, then war should be waged against the leaders of kufr (infidelity). Here «covenant breaking» in no way can be construed to mean «breaking of political covenants». Rather, the context clearly determines its meaning to be «confessing Islam and then renouncing it». Thereafter the meaning of «fight the heads of disbelief» ([Qur’an 9:11]) can only mean that war should be waged against the leaders instigating apostasy.»

Mawdudi’s interpretation is supported by other Muslim writers. For example, Afzal ur-Rahman in Muhammad, Blessing for Mankind, Seerah Foundation, London, Revised Second Edition, 1988, p. 218 under «Apostasy» states:

«People who turn away from Islam and do not repent but wage war and create mischief in the land are also considered as murderers. «But if they break their oaths after making compacts and taunt you for your faith, you should fight with these ringleaders of disbelief because their oaths are not trustworthy: it may be that the sword alone will restrain them» ([Qur’an 9:12]). And in Surah Al-Nahl, «But whosoever accepts disbelief willingly, he incurs God’s Wrath, and there is severe torment for all such people»([Qur’an 16:106])

However, there are also some scholars that reject Mawdudi’s interpretation. S. A. Rahman concluded «that not only is there no punishment for apostasy provided in the Book but that the Word of God clearly envisages the natural death of the apostate. He will be punished only in the Hereafter…»[17]

He continues and says that there is no reference to the death penalty in any of the 20 instances of apostasy mentioned in the Qur’an.

In his book on Punishment of Apostasy in Islam, Rahman declares the verse [Qur’an 2:256] to be «one of the most important verses of the Qur’an, containing a charter of freedom of conscience unparalleled in the religious annals of mankind…». He goes on to criticize the attempts by Muslim scholars over the ages to narrow its broad humanistic meaning and impose limits on its scope in their attempts to reconcile it with their interpretations of Muhammad’s Sunna. However, Maqaalaat li’l-Shaykh Ibn Baaz rejects the idea that 2:256 deals with apostasy, and claims that it only applied to non-Muslim dhimmis who were paying their jizya, and that it was subsequently abrogated.[18]

What constitutes apostasy in Islam

Attributes of apostasy according to some Muslims include:[who?]

Regarding monotheism and polytheism

Regarding prophethood of Muhammad

  • Rejecting Muhammad‘s claim to be a prophet, or denying the concept of prophethood.[citation needed]
  • Saying that there were prophets after Muhammad.[citation needed]
  • Implying that one can become a prophet through spiritual exercise, since that would imply the possibility of a prophet after Muhammad.[citation needed]

Regarding beliefs

  • Any clearly blasphemous action, such as burning the Qur’an out of contempt, and every manner of soiling it out of contempt or hatred. The same may also apply to the Hadiths books.[citation needed]
  • Contradicting the positions that are upheld by a consensus (ijma) of Muslim scholars (ulema), such as saying that prayers or fasting are not obligatory, or that the prohibition of adultery does not have to be followed. Not following these doctrines does not make one an apostate, but saying they need not be followed does.[citation needed]
  • Denying that the books before Islam (i.e. Christian and Jewish Scriptures) come from Allah (God) or denying their existence – it’s part of the 10 tenets of Faith in Islam to respect those Scriptures, as they also came from God.[citation needed]

Treason Element

Some Muslims ascribe a requirement of disbelief with an act against Islam, i.e. joining the enemies who are at war with Muslims or as in Quran (Qur’an [Qur’an 5:33]) «those who wage war against God and His Apostle».[1]

Punishment for apostasy

Execution

Legal opinion on apostasy by a Fatwa committee concerning the case of a man who converted to Christianity: «Since he left the Islam, he will be invited to express his regret. If he does not regret, he will be killed pertaining to rights and obligations of the Islamic law.»

In Islamic law (sharia), the consensus view is that a male apostate must be put to death unless he suffers from a mental disorder or converted under duress, for example, due to an imminent danger of being killed. A female apostate must be either executed, according to Shafi’i, Maliki, and Hanbali schools of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh), or imprisoned until she reverts to Islam as advocated by the Sunni Hanafi school and by Shi’a scholars.[19]

A minority of medieval Islamic jurists, notably the Hanafi jurist Sarakhsi (d. 1090),[5] Maliki jurist Ibn al-Walid al-Baji (d. 494 AH) and Hanbali jurist Ibn Taymiyyah (1263-1328), held that apostasy carries no legal punishment.[6] Some contemporary Islamic Shafi`i jurists, such as the Grand Mufti Ali Gomaa,[7][8] some Shi’a jurists such as Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri,[9] and some jurists, scholars and writers of other Islamic sects, have argued or issued fatwas that either the changing of religion is not punishable or is only punishable under restricted circumstances, but these minority opinions have not found broad acceptance among the majority of Islamic scholars.[10][11][12][13]

Preferred form of execution

Most Islamic scholars agree that the appropriate punishment for apostasy is beheading.[citation needed] Mamluk Sultan Baybars II also practiced torture of apostates. A case is recorded when a woman who had apostatised was led through the streets of Cairo dragged on her bottom, then strangled in a boat in the middle of the Nile and thrown into the river. In modern times, followers of the Ahmadiyya sect in Afghanistan were stoned to death. The execution for apostasy was abolished in most Muslim lands in the 19th century either through European pressure or through the direct European rule; however, cases of imprisonment and deportation of apostates still occurred.

Applying law in the Muslim world

Most countries of the Middle East and North Africa maintain a dual system of secular courts and religious courts, in which the religious courts mainly regulate marriage and inheritance. Saudi Arabia and Iran maintain religious courts for all aspects of jurisprudence, and religious police assert social compliance. Sharia is also used in Sudan, Libya and Afghanistan. Some states in northern Nigeria have reintroduced Sharia courts. In practice the new Sharia courts in Nigeria have most often meant the reintroduction of relatively harsh punishments without respecting the much tougher rules of evidence and testimony. The punishments include amputation of one/both hand(s) for theft, stoning for adultery, and execution for apostasy. In 1980, Pakistan, under the leadership of President Zia-ul-Haq, the Federal Shariat Court was created and given jurisdiction to examine any existing law to ensure it was not repugnant to Islam[15] and in its early acts it passed ordinances that included five that explicitly targeted religious minorities: a law against blasphemy; a law punishing the defiling of the Qur’an; a prohibition against insulting the wives, family, or companions of the Prophet of Islam; and two laws specifically restricting the activities of Ahmadis, who were declared non-Muslims.

Under traditional Islamic law[20] an apostate may be given up to three days while in incarceration to repent and accept Islam again and if not the apostate is to be killed without any reservations. There are difference between the four schools in the various details on how to deal with the various aspects of imposing the penalties with respect to the material property and holdings of the apostate and in the status and rights of the family of the apostate. A distinction is also made between «Murtad Fitri», an apostate who was born of Muslim parents, and «Murtad Milli», an apostate who had converted into Islam initially. Some additional penalties and considerations that are mentioned are that a divorce is automatic if either spouse apostatize, an under age apostate is imprisoned till he reaches maturity and then he is killed, and the recommended execution is beheading with a sword. The examples of Apostasy given below show that these punishments are rarely carried out in toto at present, and also underline the problem in harmonizing the constitutional law and Islamic law in the various countries.

In the period of the early Islamic Caliphate, apostasy was considered treason, and was accordingly treated as a capital offense; death penalties were carried out under the authority of the Caliph, the most famous such incidents being the Martyrs of Cordoba. Today apostasy is punishable by death in the countries of Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Qatar, Yemen, Iran, Sudan, Afghanistan and Mauritania. In Pakistan blasphemy is also punishable by death. Other punishments prescribed by Islamic law include the annulment of marriage with a Muslim spouse, the removal of children and the loss of all property and inheritance rights.

Opposition to execution

Death for apostasy was «not in practice enforced» in later times in the Muslim world, and was «completely abolished» by «a decree of the Ottoman government in 1260AH/1844AD.»[21]

S. A. Rahman, a former Chief Justice of Pakistan, argues that there is no indication of the death penalty in the Qur’an.[22] Abdullah Saeed and Hassan Saeed argue that the law of apostasy and its punishment by death in Islamic law conflicts with a variety of fundamentals of Islam. They contend that the early development of the law of apostasy was essentially a religio-political tool, and that there was a large diversity of opinion among early Muslims on the punishment.[23] Such views, however, are rejected by mainstream Muslim scholars.[19]

Other prominent Islamic scholars like the Grand Mufti of Cairo Sheikh Ali Gomaa have said apostasy should be legal, but stating that God will punish apostates in the afterlife.[24]

Medieval Muslim scholars (eg Sufyan al-Thawri) and modern (eg Hasan at-Turabi), have argued that the hadith used to justify execution of apostates should be taken to apply only to political betrayal of the Muslim community, rather than to apostasy in general.[25] These scholars argue for the freedom to convert to and from Islam without legal penalty, and consider the aforementioned Hadith quote as insufficient confirmation of harsh punishment; they regard apostasy as a serious crime, but undeserving of the death penalty.

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, an Islamic scholar, writes that punishment for apostasy was part of Divine punishment for only those who denied the truth even after clarification in its ultimate form by Muhammad (see Itmaam-i-hujjat), hence, he considers it a time-bound command and no longer punishable.[26]

Opposition to the execution based on the Qur’an and Hadith

The following verses and sayings from the Qur’an and Hadith suggest opposition to the execution of apostates due to no mentioning of killing apostates, and that doing otherwise contradicts with the doctrine of freedom of religion in Islam.

[Qur’an

[And say [O Muhammad]: ‘The truth [has now come] you’re your Sustainer: let, then, him or her who wills, believe in it, and let him or her who wills, reject it.] (Al-Kahf 18:29)

[There shall be no coercion in matters of faith.] (Al-Baqarah 2:256)

[And so, [O Prophet,] exhort them; your task is only to exhort. You can not compel them [to believe].] (Al-Ghashiyah 88:21-22)

[Thus, [O Prophet,] if they argue with you, say, «I have surrendered my whole being unto God, and [so have] all who follow me’ – and ask those who have been vouchsafed revelation aforetime, as well as the unlettered people, ‘Have you [too] surrendered yourselves unto Him?’ And if they surrender themselves unto Him, they are on the right path; but if they turn away – behold, your duty is no more than to deliver the message: for God sees all that is in [the hearts of] His creatures.] (Aal `Imran 3:20)

[Behold, as for those who come to believe, and then deny the truth, and again come to believe, and again deny the truth, and thereafter grow stubborn in their denial of truth — God will not forgive them, nor will guide them in any way.] (An-Nisaa’ 4:137)

Verily, We sent down to you [O Muhammad] the Book [Qur’an] for mankind in truth. So, whosoever goes astray, he goes astray to his own loss. And you [O Muhammad] are not a guardian over them. (Az-Zumar 39:41)

Hadith
Jabir ibn `Abdullah narrated that a Bedouin pledged allegiance to the Apostle of Allah for Islam (i.e. accepted Islam) and then the Bedouin got fever whereupon he said to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) «cancel my pledge.» But the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) refused. He (the Bedouin) came to him (again) saying, «Cancel my pledge.» But the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) refused. Then he (the Bedouin) left (Medina). Allah’s Apostle said, «Madinah is like a pair of bellows (furnace): it expels its impurities and brightens and clear its good.»[1]

Ubayd-Allah ibn Jahsh converted to Christianity and Muhammad also left him unharmed.[27][28]

Justifications for the death penalty

Maududi

In the 20th Century, Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi defended traditional views on apostasy against the idea of freedom of religion in Islam.[16] He summarized what he saw as the most likely objections by critics:

  • This idea is against the freedom of conscience. How can it be right to offer an apostate the gallows when he has decided to leave Islam?
  • A faith which people maintain because of the fear of death cannot be genuine faith. This faith will be manifestly hypocritically chosen to deceive in order to save one’s life. (Religious hypocrisy is the ultimate sin in Islam)
  • If all religions approve of execution for apostasy, it will be difficult not only for Muslims to embrace another religion but also for non-Muslims to embrace Islam.
  • It is contradictory to say on one hand «There is no compulsion in religion (Qur’an [Qur’an 2:256])» and «Whosoever will, let him believe and whosoever will, let him disbelieve ([Qur’an 18:29])», and on the other to threaten to punish by death who renounces Islam and moves to reject Islam.

Maududi claims that the misunderstanding and criticism arises because of a «fundamental misconception» about Islam:

If Islam is truly a «religion» in the sense that religion is understood at present, surely it would be absurd to prescribe the penalty of execution for those people who wish to leave it because of their dissatisfaction with its principles. It is not only a «religion» in the modern technical sense of that term but a complete order of life. It relates not only to the metaphysical but also to nature and everything in nature. It discourses not only on the salvation of life after death but also on the questions of prosperity, improvement and the true ordering of life before death.

Maududi also declares:

Whatever objections the critics pose regarding the punishment of the apostate, they make them bearing in mind only a single «religion» (madhhab). In contrast, when we present our arguments to demonstrate the validity of this punishment, we have in view no mere «religion» but a state which is constructed on a religion (din) and the authority of its principles rather than on the authority of a family, clan or people.

And since it is a state, Maududi declares it «has the right to protect its own existence by declaring those acts wrong which undermine its order», and proceeds to equate apostasy to treason. He then discusses the difference between a kafir, a dhimmi, and the appropriateness of death for them if they apostatize after conversion, and for those born of Muslim parents he states:

In any case the heart of the matter is that children born of Muslim lineage will be considered Muslims and according to Islamic law the door of apostasy will never be opened to them. If anyone of them renounces Islam, he will be as deserving of execution as the person who has renounced kufr to become a Muslim and again has chosen the way of kufr. All the jurists of Islam agree with this decision. On this topic absolutely no difference exists among the experts of shari’ah.

Maududi considers the threat of execution as not forcing someone to stay within the fold of Islam, but as a way of keeping those who are not truly committed out of the community of Islam. Maududi rejects the third criticism because unlike other religions which are free to exchange believers, Islam is «on whose ideas and actions society and state are constructed» cannot allow «to keep open its door that would spell its own ruin, the scattering of its own structure’s parts, the stripping away of the bonds of its own existence», and he compares this to the treason penalty on the books of the U.S. and Britain. Maududi also rejects the charge of contradiction. In his words:

«There is no compulsion in religion» (la ikraha fi’d din: Qur’an [Qur’an 2:256]) means that we do not compel anyone to come into our religion. And this is truly our practice. But we initially warn whoever would come and go back that this door is not open to come and go. Therefore anyone who comes should decide before coming that there is no going back.

Others

Essentially the same arguments are sketched by the Shi’i Islamic author Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi in the brief article Apostacy (Irtidad) in Islam,[29] relying upon the opinions of some of the earlier scholars of Islam.

However, Ibn Warraq points out some earlier scholars of Islam who found support in the Qur’an for the death penalty for apostasy.[30] He quotes al-Shafi (died 820 C.E.), the founder of one of the four orthodox schools of law of Sunni Islam that verse [Qur’an 2:217] meant that the death penalty should be prescribed for apostates, and Al-Thalabi and Al-Khazan concurred, and states that Al-Razi in his commentary on 2:217 says an apostate should be killed. Ibn Warraq also quotes commentaries by Baydawi (died c. 1315-1316) on [Qur’an 4:89] as «Whosoever turns back from his belief (irtada), openly or secretly, take him and kill him wheresoever ye find him, like any other infidel». Verse ([Qur’an 4:88]) reads:

Why should ye be divided into two parties about the Hypocrites? … They wish if you disbelieve as they disbelieved so that you would be alike. So do not take from among them allies until they emigrate in the way of Allah. But if they turn back, seize them and kill them wherever you find them. And do not take from among them any ally or helper, Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty or those who come to you with hearts restraining them from fighting you or fighting their people. And if Allah had willed, surely He would have given them power over you, so that they would have taken arms against you. Therefore, if they keep away from you and cease their hostility and offer you peace, God bids you not to harm them.

Apostasy in the recent past

Background

The violence or threats of violence against apostates in the Muslim world usually derives not from government authorities but from individuals or groups operating with impunity from the government.[31] An example is the stabbing of a Bangladeshi Murtad Fitri Christian evangelist while returning home from a film version of the Gospel of Luke.[32] Bangladesh does not have a law against apostasy, but some Imams encourage the killing of converts from Islam. Many ex-Muslims in Great Britain have faced abuse, violence, and even murder at the hands of Muslims.[33] There are similar reports of violent intimidation of those electing to reject Islam in other Western countries.[34]

Other examples of persecution of apostates converting to Christianity have been given by the Barnabas Fund:

The field of apostasy and blasphemy and related «crimes» is thus obviously a complex syndrome within all Muslim societies which touches a raw nerve and always arouses great emotional outbursts against the perceived acts of treason, betrayal and attacks on Islam and its honour. While there are a few brave dissenting voices within Muslim societies, the threat of the application of the apostasy and blasphemy laws against any who criticize its application is an efficient weapon used to intimidate opponents, silence criticism, punish rivals, reject innovations and reform, and keep non-Muslim communities in their place.[35]

Similar views are expressed by the ‘non-religious’ International Humanist and Ethical Union.[36]

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

In March 2006, an Afghan citizen Abdul Rahman was charged with apostasy and could have faced the death penalty for converting to Christianity. His case attracted much international attention with Western countries condemning Afghanistan for persecuting a convert. Charges against Abdul Rahman were dismissed on technical grounds by the Afghan court after intervention by the president Hamid Karzai. He was released and left the country to find refuge in Italy.[31]

Two other Afghan converts to Christianity were arrested in March and their fate is unknown. In February, yet other converts had their homes raided by police.[31]

Islamic Republic of Iran

Probably the most prominent[citation needed] contemporary figure accused of apostasy was Salman Rushdie. In 1989 the killing of that author was urged in a fatwa by the Ayatollah Khomeini, the ruler of Iran at the time, for the blasphemy of authoring the book The Satanic Verses.

According to US thinktank Freedom House, since the 1990s the Islamic Republic of Iran has sometimes used death squads against converts, including major Protestant leaders. Under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the regime has engaged in a systematic campaign to track down and reconvert or kill those who have changed their religion from Islam.[31]

15 Ex-Muslim Christians[37] were incarcerated on May 15, 2008 under charges of apostasy. They may face the death penalty if convicted. A new penal code is being proposed in Iran that would require the death penalty in cases of Apostasy on the Internet.[38]

At least two Iranians – Hashem Aghajari and Hassan Youssefi Eshkevari – have been arrested and charged with apostasy in the Islamic Republic (though not executed), not for self-professed conversion to another faith, but for statements and/or activities deemed by courts of the Islamic Republic to be in violation of Islam, and that appear to outsiders to be Islamic reformist political expression.[39] Hashem Aghajari, was found guilty of apostasy for a speech urging Iranians to «not blindly follow» Islamic clerics;[40] Hassan Youssefi Eshkevari was charged with apostasy for attending the ‘Iran After the Elections’ Conference in Berlin Germany which was disrupted by anti-regime demonstrators.[41]

Bahá’ís

Bahá’ís in Iran, the nation of origin of the Bahá’í Faith and Iran’s largest religious minority, are considered apostates by the Shi’a clergy because of their claim to a valid religious revelation subsequent to that of Muhammad. Iranian law therefore treats Bahá’ís as heretics rather than members of an independent religion, as they describe themselves. Bahá’ís have therefore been subjected to much persecution (documented by various third party entities such as the United Nations, Amnesty International, and the European Union) including beatings, torture, unjustified executions, false imprisonment, confiscation and destruction of property owned by individuals and the Bahá’í community, denial of employment, denial of government benefits, denial of civil rights and liberties, and denial of access to higher education.[42]

In April 2006, after a court case in Egypt recognized the Bahá’í Faith, members of the clergy convinced the government to appeal the court decision. One member of parliament, Gamal Akl of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood, said the Bahá’ís were infidels who should be killed on the grounds that they had changed their religion.[43]

Algeria

On March 21, 2006, the Algerian parliament approved a new law requiring imprisonment for two to five years and a fine between five and ten thousand euros for anyone «trying to call on a Muslim to embrace another religion.» The same penalty applies to anyone who «stores or circulates publications or audio-visual or other means aiming at destabilizing attachment to Islam.»[31]

Turkey

Turkey, being a secular state, does not implement Islamic Law (Sharia), thus there is no judgement in Turkish legislation for apostasy. Moreover execution, which is a penalty for apostasy in Sharia, is not implemented in Turkey.

More recently, on January 21, 2007, the Central Council of Ex-Muslims was founded in Germany, an association led by Iranian exile Mina Ahadi and Turkish-German immigrant Arzu Toker. The association stands up for former Muslims who chose to abandon Islam. Shortly after going public on February 28, 2007, the group received death threats by radical islamists.[44]

On April 18, 2007, two Turkish converts to Christianity, Necati Aydin and Uğur Yüksel, were killed in the Malatya bible publishing firm murders. Having tortured them for several hours, the attackers then slit their throats. The attackers stated that they did it in order to defend the state and their religion. The government and other officials in Turkey had in the past criticized Christian missionary work, while the European Union—which Turkey hopes to join—has called for more freedom for the Christian minority.[45][46][47]

Egypt

The Mohammed Hegazy case, shows the huge problems in that country for those wishing to leave Islam and be recognised as a member of another religion – where Hegazy has suffered death threats from family and prominent Islamic figures alike. A Judge ruled «He (Hegazy) can believe whatever he wants in his heart, but on paper he can’t convert.»[cite this quote] He is the first Egyptian Muslim convert to Christianity to seek official recognition of his conversion from the Egyptian Government.[citation needed]

In February 2009, a second case came to court, of convert to Christianity Maher Ahmad El-Mo’otahssem Bellah El-Gohary, whose effort to officially convert to Christianity, faced opposing lawyers who advocated he be convicted of «apostasy,» or leaving Islam, and sentenced to death.

«Our rights in Egypt, as Christians or converts, are less than the rights of animals,» El-Gohary said. «We are deprived of social and civil rights, deprived of our inheritance and left to the fundamentalists to be killed. Nobody bothers to investigate or care about us.»El-Gohary, 56, has been attacked in the street, spat at and knocked down in his effort to win the right to officially convert. He said he and his 14-year-old daughter continue to receive death threats by text message and phone call.[48]

Other countries

Vigilantes have killed, beaten, and threatened converts in Pakistan, the Palestinian territories, Turkey, Nigeria, Indonesia, Somalia, and Kenya. In November 2005, Iranian convert Ghorban Tourani was stabbed to death by a group of fanatical Muslims. In December 2005, Nigerian pastor Zacheous Habu Bu Ngwenche was attacked for allegedly hiding a convert. In January 2006, in Turkey, Kamil Kiroglu was beaten unconscious and threatened with death if he refused to deny his Christian faith and return to Islam.[31]

In Malaysia, although there has not been violence visited upon apostates, cases such as the Lina Joy episode confirm that Muslim apostasy is illegal and unaccepted by the state, at least on an identification card.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Badawi, Jamal A. (April 26, 2006). «Is Apostasy a Capital Crime in Islam?«. Contemporary Issues. IslamOnline. http://www.islamonline.net/English/contemporary/2006/04/article02.shtml. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  2. ^ Kutty, Ahmad (September 15, 2009). «Should an Apostate Be Put to Death?«. IslamOnline. http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1141277529583. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  3. ^ Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf (April 13, 2006). «Apostasy: Major and Minor«. Contemporary Issues. IslamOnline. http://www.islamonline.net/English/contemporary/2006/04/article01c.shtml. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  4. ^ a b c Jane Dammen McAuliffe, general editor (2001). «Apostasy». in McAuliffe, Jane Dammen. Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an. 1. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11465-4. [page needed]
  5. ^ a b Saeed, Abdullah; Saeed, Hassan (2004). Freedom of Religion, Apostasy and Islam. Ashgate Publishing. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-7546-3082-1. OCLC 49531008.
  6. ^ a b Kamali, Mohammad Hashim (1998). «Punishment in Islamic Law: a Critique of The Hudud Bill of Kelantan, Malaysia«. Arab Law Quarterly 13 (3): 203–234. doi:10.1163/026805598125826102. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=info:2og1-0ORE-gJ:scholar.google.com/&output=viewport&pg=1&hl=en.
  7. ^ a b Grand Mufti Ali Gomaa, Gomaa’s Statement on Apostasy, The Washington Post, July 25, 2007.
  8. ^ a b Nashwa Abdel-Tawab, ‘Whosoever will, let him disbelieve’, Al-Ahram Weekly, Issue No. 857, 9-15 August 2007.
  9. ^ a b c d Jami, Mahdi (February 2, 2005). «آيت الله منتظری: هر تغيير مذهبی ارتداد نيست [Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri: ‘Not Every Conversion is Apostasy’]» (in Persian). BBC Persian. http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/story/2005/02/050202_mj-montzari-renegade.shtml. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  10. ^ a b Abdelhadi, Magdi (March 27, 2006). «What Islam says on religious freedom«. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4850080.stm. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  11. ^ a b Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf (March 24, 2003). «Fatwa on Intellectual Apostasy«. IslamOnline. http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1119503545098&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaE. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  12. ^ a b Rahman, S. A. (1972). Punishment of Apostasy in Islam. Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture. pp. 10–13. OCLC 708470.
  13. ^ a b Shafaat, Ahmad (February 2006). «The punishment of apostasy in Islam«. http://www.islamicperspectives.com/Apostasy1.htm. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  14. ^ «Afghan convert freed from prison«. BBC News. March 28, 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4851666.stm. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  15. ^ a b W. Heffening, in Encyclopedia of Islam[page needed]
  16. ^ a b Mawdudi, Abul Ala (1994). «The Punishment of the Apostate According to Islamic Law«. in Husain, Syed Silas; Hahn, Ernest. Answering Islam. http://answering-islam.org/Hahn/Mawdudi/. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  17. ^ Rahman, S. A. (1972). Punishment of Apostasy in Islam. Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture. p. 54. OCLC 708470.
  18. ^ http://63.175.194.25/index.php?ln=eng&ds=qa&lv=browse&QR=34770&dgn=4[dead link]
  19. ^ a b Heffening, W.. «Murtadd». in P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online Edition. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
  20. ^ according to Abdurrahmani’l-Djaziri’s Kitabul’l-fiqh ‘ala’l-madhahibi’l-‘arba’a i.e. Apostasy in Islam according to the Four Schools of Islamic Law (Vol. 5, pp. 422-440) First English Edition (Villach): 1997[verification needed]
  21. ^ Glassé, Cyril (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Walnut Creek, California: AltaMira. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-7591-0189-0. OCLC 48553252.
  22. ^ S. A. Rahman (1986). Punishment of apostasy in Islam. Kazi. ISBN 978-0-686-18551-2. [page needed]
  23. ^ Saeed, Abdullah; Saeed, Hassan (2004). Freedom of Religion, Apostasy and Islam. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-3082-1. OCLC 49531008. [page needed]
  24. ^ Spollen, Jonathan (July 27, 2007). «The conversion factor«. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2007/jul/27/theconversionfactor. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  25. ^ Halim, Shah Abdul (August 5, 2003). «Islam & Pluralism: A Contemporary Approach«. Contemporary Issues. IslamOnline. http://www.islamonline.net/english/Contemporary/2003/05/Article01a.shtml. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  26. ^ Ghamidi, Javed Ahmad (November 1996). «The Punishment for Apostasy«. Renaissance 6 (11). http://www.renaissance.com.pk/novsps966.html.
  27. ^ Farooq, Mohammad Omar (April 2, 2007). «On Apostasy and Islam: 100+ Notable Islamic Voices affirming the Freedom of Faith«. Apostasy and Islam. http://apostasyandislam.blogspot.com/2007/04/apostasy-and-islamic-voices-affirming.html. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  28. ^ Ahmed, A. A. (2006). The Hidden Life of the Prophet Muhammad. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4259-0571-2. http://www.scribd.com/doc/16055814/The-Hidden-Life-of-the-Prophet-Muhammad. [page needed]
  29. ^ Rizvi, Sayyid Muhammad (2006). «Apostacy (Irtidad) in Islam«. http://al-islam.org/short/apostasy/. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  30. ^ Warraq, Ibn (April 18, 2005). «Apostasy and Human Rights«. International Humanist and Ethical Union. http://www.iheu.org/node/1541. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Marshall, Paul (April 10, 2008). «Apostates from Islam«. The Weekly Standard 011 (28). http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/012/059fpgrn.asp.
  32. ^ Gartenstein-Ross, David (February 2005). «When Muslims Convert«. Commentary. http://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/when-muslims-convert-9855. Retrieved October 15, 2009. Full text.
  33. ^ «Muslim apostates cast out and at risk from faith and family«. The Times. February 5, 2005. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article510589.ece. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  34. ^ Spencer, Robert (September 9, 2004). «Why Must Ex-Muslims Live in Fear — In America?«. Jihad Watch. http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=5031. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  35. ^ «The Application of the Apostasy Law in the World Today«. Barnabas Fund. July 3, 2007. http://barnabasfund.org/US/News/Archives/The-Application-of-the-Apostasy-Law-in-the-World-Today.html. Retrieved October 15, 2009. [unreliable source?]
  36. ^ Kamguian, Azam (June 21, 2005). «The Fate of Infidels and Apostates under Islam«. International Humanist and Ethical Union. http://www.iheu.org/node/1540. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  37. ^ http://compassdirect.org/en/display.php?page=breaking&lang=en&length=long&idelement=5470[dead link] Apostasy
  38. ^ «Iran considering death penalty for web-related crimes«. Gulf News. July 2, 2008. http://gulfnews.com/news/region/iran/iran-considering-death-penalty-for-web-related-crimes-1.116338. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  39. ^ «Iranian academic sentenced to death«. BBC News. November 7, 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2415751.stm. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  40. ^ Human Rights Watch (November 9, 2002). «Iran: Academic’s Death Sentence Condemned«. Press release. Archived from the original on November 13, 2002. http://web.archive.org/web/20021113041505/http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/11/iranacademic.htm. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  41. ^ Human Rights Watch (November 1, 2000). «Iran: Trial for Conference Attendees«. Press release. http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2000/11/01/iran-trial-conference-attendees. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  42. ^ Affolter, Friedrich W. (January 2005). «The Specter of Ideological Genocide: The Bahá’ís of Iran«. War Crimes, Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 1 (1): 59–89. http://www.altoona.psu.edu/journals/war-crimes/articles/V1/v1n1a3.pdf.
  43. ^ Reuters (May 3, 2006). «State to appeal ruling that favours Egypt’s Baha’is«. Khaleej Times. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle.asp?xfile=data/middleeast/2006/May/middleeast_May69.xml&section=middleeast&col=. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  44. ^ «Interview with Founder of ‘Council of Ex-Muslims’«. Der Spiegel. February 27, 2007. http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,468828,00.html. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  45. ^ «Three killed at Turkish publisher«. BBC News. April 18, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6568911.stm. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  46. ^ «Ten arrested over Turkey murders«. BBC News. April 19, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6572257.stm. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  47. ^ Grossbongardt, Annette (April 23, 2007). «After the Missionary Massacre: Christian Converts Live In Fear in Intolerant Turkey«. Der Spiegel. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,478955,00.html. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  48. ^ Compass Direct (February 26, 2009). «Egyptian Islamic Lawyers Urge Death Sentence For Convert«. Assyrian International News Agency. http://www.aina.org/news/20090226172430.htm. Retrieved October 15, 2009.

Further reading

External links

Search Wikiquote Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Apostasy in Islam

ΣΗΜΕΙΩΣΗ ΔΙΚΗ ΜΑΣ: Υπάρχει fatwa κατά του Μαουντούντι (Maududi) την οποία θα βρείτε εδώ: http://www.ummah.net/Al_adaab/mawdudi1.html Όμως εδώ πρόκειται για Σιΐτες και στο θέμα της αποστασίας οι περισσότεροι συμφωνούν με τον Μαουντούντι. Σε άλλο άρθρο θα βρείτε όλο το σχετικό έργο του Μαουντούντι στην αγγλική.

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4 Σχόλια

  1. A pretty good collection you got here. God bless!

  2. […] και, σύμφωνα με τον ισλαμικό νόμο, “έπρεπε” να πεθάνει. Είναι λογικό: αφού, κατά το Ισλάμ, ο Θεός δημιούργησε […]

  3. I don’t want to beat a dead horse, but I find this very frustrating. So many people believe in this stupid religion! Keep up the good work, I can read Greek but I don’t write that good. Μπράβο!

  4. […] Άρθρα για την αποστασία […]

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